DNS Queries in Windows Server 2003
Always remember that there are two sides to DNS. Firstly, registration which adds resource records such as Host (A) into the DNS database. Secondly there are queries where clients seek those resource records, for example where is BigServer? Back comes the reply from DNS: BigServer IP = 10.10.55.21.
Topics for DNS Query
- Authoritative DNS Servers
- Iterative and Recursive Queries
- Root Hints
- DNS Caching
- DNS Forwarders
The goal of a DNS query is to find an authoritative DNS server, which can then return the IP address for the queried host. Authoritative DNS Servers have ownership and knowledge about resource records for a particular domain. From the point of view of a query, contacting Authoritative server is good news because you get an instant response of an IP address, or a host not found error message. However, if that server was not authoritative then, as we will see, DNS turns to forwarders, iterative queries and root hints.
To check which DNS servers are authoritative, select the Forward Lookup Zone, domain name, properties and then Start of Authority (Tab), finally Primary Server:
Technically, DNS queries divide into two sub types, recursive or iterative. Whereas I a normally like to savour and remember terms, this pair don’t help that much in understanding DNS. In practical terms a good DNS uses both methods to resolve the query and again from a practical point of view the best thing you can do is make sure the ‘Root Hints’ are set correctly on the server and the firewall.
Recursive is the simpler query of the pair to understand in that its all or nothing. The DNS server either returns the full answer or a ‘server not found’ error. A recursive query is the type of name resolution that an XP client may send to its DNS server. If the server knows the answer to the query, then no problem, however if the DNS server does not know the answer then takes up the search on behalf of the client.
Consider an example where an XP client in yourdomain.com says to its DNS server: ‘ Give me the IP address of webserver.microsoft.com.’
Your server could respond to the effect, ‘I am not authoritative for microsoft.com – go away’. This would come back as an official reply: ‘server not found’. More likely, your server would take up the search on behalf of the client. What would happen is that the server queries the root hints in an attempt to find the whereabouts of the microsoft.com domain servers. The key difference between a recursive and iterative request is that the server does all the work on behalf of the client.
What happens with an iterative query is that the requesting server ‘steps’ the DNS root hints. It says to the root servers, ‘ Where is Microsoft.com?’ If this was a recursive query, then the root server would say ‘I don’t know, server not found’. But with an iterative query the root server gives its best shot and says, ‘Try the .com servers at w.x.y.z. IP address’. Then the .com server would iteratively point your DNS to microsoft.com and as Microsoft would be authoritative for web.microsoft.com, at last, back comes the IP address. This ‘stepping’ the root hints is known as an iterative query. The key difference is that a server can respond to an iterative query with a partial reply. With luck, this partial reply will be a stepping stone to finding the Fully Qualified Domain Name.
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If your Windows DNS server is connected to the internet and your clients want to find websites, then you need to check your root hints. The good news is that Root Hints are installed be default. What Root Hints do is act as pointers to servers that know the IP address of the top level domains. Launch your DNS Snap-in, select the Server Icon, right-click select Properties and then select the Root Hints tab.
On the other hand, if your DNS server is not connected to the internet, thensee more on root hints here.
Root hints are stored in a physical file called cache.dns. You can inspect this file in the %systemroot%\windows32\dns\samples folder.
Here is what cache.dns looks like
; formerly NS.INTERNIC.NET
. 3600000 IN NS A.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
A.ROOT-SERVERS.NET. 3600000 A 188.8.131.52
; formerly NS1.ISI.EDU
. 3600000 NS B.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
B.ROOT-SERVERS.NET. 3600000 A 184.108.40.206
These NS records of the ‘ . ‘ root servers are loaded into the Root Hint tab of your DNS server.
Test your forward and reverse lookups by clicking on the Monitoring Tab visible from your server properties. You may also be able to see the Monitoring Tab on the above diagram.
DNS Servers build up a cache of previously resolved queries. As requests are looked up on other servers, so records are added to the cache. A good cache has the twin benefits of faster response time and less network traffic. A bad cache can be a liability in that it gives the requestor incorrect information. One reason that I like to set the DNS snap-in to View, Advanced is that I can then see which records are in the Cached Lookups folder. Another reason that I like to view the Cached Lookups folder is so that when I am troubleshooting, I can right-click the folder and Clear Cache.
Small sites sometimes manage DNS through caching only servers, the point is that the learn, and cache records the few users need but as they have no Zones themselves, their is no associated replication traffic. This technique is useful where you have Active Directory Integrated zones and want a DNS server which is not a domain controller.
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Forwarder by name, forwarder by nature. The situation is that when your DNS server receives a query, for which it is not authoritative, it contacts a server that does know the answer to that query. Moreover, instead of ‘walking’ the root hints, it refers directly to a server that has the appropriate resource records. Secondary zones contacting their primary zone would be an example of forwarders.
One major use of Forwarders is for networks which use firewalls, perimeter networks or DMZ (demilitarised zone. For security reasons, the internal DNS servers know nothing of the internet root hints, so they forward all such queries to severs on the internet facing side of the firewall or perimeter network.
Another classic use of forwards is where companies have subsidiaries, partners or people they know and contact regularly query. Instead of going the long-way around using the root hints, the network administrators configure Conditional Forwarders.
The clever idea with conditional forwarders is that only certain namespaces are forwarded to particular servers. If you have a subsidiary called Acme.com, then you could configure all queries for Acme.com to their DNS servers, while other queries could go out to the internet via the root hints. See more on conditional forwarding
When configuring or troubleshooting DNS, start by asking: ‘Is this a registration problem, or is this a query problem? DNS queries invariably involve many steps. If you clients are experiencing problems, then check the DNS Server Properties, in particular examine the root hints and the forwarders tabs.
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Related DNS Server topics
- New Features for DNS in Windows Server 2003
- DNS – Names & Namespace
- Types of DNS Zone
- Conditional Forwarding
- Installing DNS Server
- DNS Queries
- Root Hints
- Resource Records
- DNS Naming Rules
- Basic DNS Server Troubleshooting
- Advanced DNS Troubleshooting
- Debug Logging for DNS in Windows Server 2003
- DNSLint – Utility