Windows PowerShell Tee-Object

PowerShell Tee-ObjectWindows PowerShell Tee-Object Cmdlet

The point of Tee-Object is that it can do two thing at once, for example, it could save the output to a file, while redirecting the output to the console.

Think of 'T' as in T-junction, and you will appreciate what this cmdlet can do when you need duplicate outputs.

'Tee' in Windows PowerShell


Example 1: Eventlog and Tee-Object

The scenario: We want to display entries in the System eventlog; furthermore, we want to save these entries into a named file. 

# Tee-Object example, trace the branching to $File and Format-Table
$File = "D:\PShell\EventStuff.txt"
Get-EventLog System -Newest 100 -EntryType Error |
Tee-Object -FilePath $File |
Format-Table TimeGenerated, EventId, Source -AutoSize

Warning: To save disappointment, please modify the value of $File before executing this example on your machine.

Note 1: To see the file contents you could append:
Invoke-Item $File

Note 2: When Tee-Object is the last command in the pipeline, the output is sent to the console.

Challenge: Modify the script to delete all entries with a TimeWritten before 30 days, while keeping a copy of the names of the entries deleted.

Investigate Parameters of Tee-Object

As usual Get-Help reveals useful parameters such as -Append, which would be handy if we wanted the file to keep a record of similar errors over a long period of time.

# Investigate parameters and examples
Get-Help Tee-Object -Full

Note 3: Parameters such as -Variable would be useful in creating other scripts.

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Example 2: Tee-Object Saves Data Into Two Files

One of the commonest jobs for Tee-Object is where you want to save data to files.  One file holds the latest results, whereas the other file keeps a running total.

Scenario: You want to save the current eventlog error messages to a file called NewOnly.txt.  However, you also want to keep a running total in a file called FullRecord.txt.

# Tee-Object branching with two different files
Function Get-SystemLogRecord {
Param (
[String]$NewOnly = "D:\PShell\NewOnly.txt",
[String]$Continuous = "D:\PShell\FullRecord.txt"
Begin {
"Start ….`n"
Get-EventLog System -Newest 100 -EntryType Error
             } # Conclusion of function's Process engine
End {
"`n Latest report " + (Get-Date).ToString()
} # Function code complete

# Now, here is where Tee-Object uses the Function
Get-SystemLogRecord |
Tee-Object -FilePath $NewOnly |
Out-File $Continuous -append
Invoke-Item $Continuous

If you are not familiar with functions, then here is the bare-bones version of the above script:

$NewOnly = "D:\PShell\NewOnly.txt"
$Continuous = "D:\PShell\Continuous.txt"
Get-EventLog System -Newest 25 -EntryType Error |
Tee-Object -FilePath $NewOnly |
Out-File $Continuous -append
Invoke-Item $Continuous

Note 4: One output goes to -FilePath, and the other branches to Out-File.

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Example 3: The Rhythm of Tee-Object Cmdlet

With Tee-Object you can run a command-line application in PowerShell and have the output both redirected to a file, and displayed on the console.  For example:

$File ="C:\ProgramData\"
Get-ChildItem $File | Tee-Object -FilePath "C:\Temp\TeeProgDat.txt" |
Format-Table Name

Note 5: Observe the rhythm of the command, and understand the position of PowerShell's (|) pipes.

  1. Input |
  2. Tee-Object (no pipe yet) 1st output follows directly
  3. | (pipe after first output)
  4. 2nd output.

Tee-Object Alias

# Investigate alias
Get-Alias -Definition Tee-Object

CommandType  Name ModuleName
—————-  ——   ———-
Alias              tee ->  Tee-Object

Incidentally, Tee-Object's alias reminds me of the Tee command in UNIX, which is also used to both store and view the output from another command.

Example 4: Tee-Object Sequence Problem

I find that if you change the sequence after Tee, and try to place the console output BEFORE the file output, then the script fails.

Example A: Problem

# Example A: Failure
$File ="C:\ProgramData\"
Get-ChildItem $File | Tee Format-Table Name |
-FilePath "C:\Temp\TeeProgDat.txt" -Append

-FilePath : The term '-FilePath' is not recognized as the name of a cmdlet, function, script file, or operable program.

Note 6: There is nothing wrong with using the alias 'Tee' for Tee-Object; as you can see in Example C below.  It's the sequence that's the problem.

Example B: Problem. This sequence does not work either:

# Example B: Another failure
$File ="C:\ProgramData\"
Get-ChildItem $File | Tee | Format-Table Name |
-FilePath "C:\Temp\TeeProgDat.txt" -Append

Example C: Solution. Place the instruction for outputting to the console last.

# Example C: Success!
$File ="C:\ProgramData\"
Get-ChildItem $File | Tee -FilePath "C:\Temp\TeeProgDat.txt" -Append |
Format-Table Name

Note 7: You could add:
Invoke-Item "C:\Temp\TeeProgDat.txt"

What's new in PowerShell 4.0 ยป

Summary of PowerShell Tee-Object

The purpose of Tee-Object is to act as a 'T' junction in PowerShell's pipe sequence.  This means that your script can have two outputs; in the classical example it takes an input and sends one output to a file, and another to the console.

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See more Microsoft PowerShell output tutorials:

PShell Home   • Out-File   • Out-GridView   • ConvertTo-Csv   • ConvertTo-Html   • ConvertFrom-Csv

Tee-Object   • Import-CSV   • Format-Table   • PowerShell Here-String  • ConvertFrom-JSON

Export-CliXml   • Format-List   • Read-Host    • PowerShell Get-History   • -f format   • Pipe to file

Please email me if you have a better example script. Also please report any factual mistakes, grammatical errors or broken links, I will be happy to correct the fault.