PowerShell's Get-Childitem (gci)

Scripting Files with PowerShell's Get-Childitem (gci)

Sooner or later you need a script which lists the files in a folder.  In DOS we would type: 'DIR'; the nearest equivalent in PowerShell is gci.  The full name behind the gci alias is Get-ChildItem.  You can take the comparison further, dir /s in DOS, translates to Get-ChildItem -Recurse in PowerShell.

PowerShell Get-ChildItem Topics

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Example 1: To List Files in the Root of the C:\ drive

Here is an example to get started, it will list all the files in the C:\ root.  If you need any help in executing the code, then see here.

# PowerShell script to list the files in C: root
Get-Childitem "C:\"

Note 1: In this instance C:\ is the root, and Get-Childitem lists any files at this location.

Note 2: Get-Childitem "C:\"  works equally well without the speech marks.  E.g.:
           Get-Childitem C:\   However, you do need the backslash after the colon, and you would need speech marks if the directory contained spaces.

Example 2: The Famous GCI -Recurse Parameter

Outside of PowerShell, recurse is a little known verb which means: rerun.  Inside of PowerShell, Get-ChildItem -Recurse is one of the most famous parameters meaning: repeat the procedure on sub-folders.

The point of example 2b is to list all the dll's under the Windows folder.  Moreover, it will display their CreationTime, which helps determine if a file is up-to-date.  This technique is particularly useful for troubleshooting .dll files.

Example 2a: The Problem

Our goal is to find all the dlls under the Windows folder.  The problem is that this script does not search the system32 subdirectory.

# PowerShell gci example to list .dll in Windows folder
$Files = gci "C:\Windows\" | Where {$_.extension -eq ".dll"}
$Files | Format-Table Name, CreationTime, Length -auto

Note 3: I substituted the alias gci for Get-ChildItem

Note 4: This script lists only 4 dlls; surely there must be more?

Example 2b: The Solution

To find .dlls in the subdirectories let us append the Get-ChildItem -Recurse parameter.

# PowerShell example to list .dll in Windows folder and sub-folders
Write-Host `n "Waiting ...."
$Files = gci "C:\Windows\" -Recurse | Where {$_.extension -eq ".dll"}
Clear-Host
$Files | Format-Table Name, CreationTime, Length -auto

Note 5: I changed Name to FullName so that it would display the subdirectory where you can find the file.  See more on $_.extension.

Note 6: You could silence the error messages by introducing this after -Recurse:
 -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

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Example 2c: Extra Formatting

This example produces the same result but uses the -f formatting command and the alias Gci.

# PowerShell script to list the dll files under C:\Windows\System32
$i =0
$Files = Gci "C:\Windows\" -Recurse -EA 4 | ? {$_.extension -eq ".dll"}
Foreach ($Dll in $Files) {
"{0,-28} {1,-20} {2,12}" -f `
$Dll.name, $DLL.CreationTime, $Dll.Length
$i++
}
Write-Host `n The total number of dlls is: $i

Note 7: This example also uses three aliases; my principle reason was to make line 3 shorter.  Gci is an alias for our featured command Get-Childitem, while the question mark (?) is an alias for 'where'. "-EA 4" means error action silently continue.

Note 8: The -Recurse parameter comes directly after the name of the directory.  For completeness, the location should be introduced by the -path parameter, but as this is optional, I have omitted the -Path parameter in this script.  However, this is how to include the -Path parameter.
$Files = gci -Path "C:\Windows\System32" -Recurse.

Trusty Twosome (Get-Help and Get-Member)

When you discover a new PowerShell command, it benefits from being probed with what I call the 'Trusty Twosome'.  Experiment with Get-Help and Get-Member and unlock new scripting possibilities for Get-Childitem. To see what I mean try these two commands:

# Research PowerShell Get-Childitem Parameters
Get-Help Get-Childitem

# (Try help gci) If you prefer abbreviations.
# (And help gci -full) If you like examples.

Note 9: Get-Help unearths useful parameters such as -Recurse, -exclude, it also reveals hidden files with: -Force.

# Research PowerShell Get-Childitem Properties
Get-Help Get-Childitem

Get-Childitem | Get-Member
# (gci | gm) If you enjoy aliases.
# (gci | gm -Membertype property) If want only properties

Note: Get-Member reveals properties that you don't normally see in explorer, for example, CreationTime.

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Example 3: List ALL Files, Including Hidden and System

# List ALL files in the root
$GciFiles = Get-Childitem C:\ -Force
$GciFiles | Sort-Object | FT Name, Attributes -auto
Write-Host "Number of files in the root: " $GciFiles.Count

Note 10: The key addition is the parameter -Force.  What this does is include hidden and system files.

Note 11: The additional commands enable us to count the files, this makes easier to see prove that -Force really makes a difference.  Double check what I mean by running the script with, and then without, the -Force switch.

See basic PowerShell examples featuring Get-ChildItem »

Example 4: Filter to List Just the System files

# PowerShell cmdlet to list JUST the System files in the root of C:\
$GciFiles = Get-ChildItem "C:\" -Force |where {$_.attributes -Match "System"}
$GciFiles | Sort-Object | Format-Table name, attributes -auto
Write-Host "Number of system files: " $GciFiles.Count

Note 12:  We need to employ the comparison parameter -Match "System", rather than -eq "System", this is because System files also have Hidden and other attributes.  Consequently, their attribute does not equal ''System'', although it does contain, or match the word System.

Note 13:  These last two examples employ the .count property rather than using the $i counter of previous scripts.  See more on GCI -Exclude and Where-Object.

Challenge 1:  Repeat the command with and without -Force.

Challenge 2:  Substitute this new 'where' clause on line 3: where {$_.attributes -ne "Directory"}. -ne is the opposite of -eq.  Thus this command filters out the directory entry.

# PowerShell cmdlet to list the System files in the root of C:\
$GciFiles = gci C:\ -Force |where {$_.attributes -ne "Directory"}
$GciFiles | Sort-Object | FT Name, Attributes -auto
Write-Host "Number of plain files: " $GciFiles.Count

 

# PowerShell script to investigate file properties
Get-ChildItem | Get-Member -Membertype property

Get-Childitem -Recurse can be surprisingly tricky, if this construction is giving you problems, see here for more help on -Recurse

Get-ChildItem Alias 'Gci'

With Microsoft, there are always at least three ways of doing everything, what seems like redundancy when you are an expert, seems like perspective when you are a beginner.  Get-ChildItem has not one, but three aliases check thus:

# PowerShell Alias GCI
Get-Alias -Definition Get-ChildItem

Result: dir, ls and gci.

Parameter Aliases for Get-ChildItem
Starting in PowerShell 3.0 you can also use these aliases for PARAMTERS

Get-ChildItem C:\
-d, or -ad (Directory)
-af (File)
-h, -ah (Hidden)
-ar (ReadOnly)
-as (System)

Example 1: Get-ChildItem C:\ -as -force
Example 2: gci D:\ -ad

The Rest of the Item Family

# PowerShell Item Cmdlet Research
Clear-Host
Get-Command -Noun Item

As expected there is an Get-Item cmdlet, but you may not realize there is a Move-Item cmdlet.  PowerShell -Noun or -verb research always throws up at least one surprise.

Copy-Item
Get-Item (gi)
Invoke-Item
Move-Item
New-Item
Remove-Item
Set-Item
Also, a special mention of Test-Path
And my function Get-File

See more Get-ChildItem examples »

Summary of Get-ChildItem

Get-ChildItem, or its alias gci is an interesting and important PowerShell cmdlet.  Interesting because it has classic parameters such as -Force and -Recurse; important because it's the basis of so many scripts that need to interrogate not only the filesystem but also the registry or certificate store.

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See more Microsoft PowerShell file tutorials:

PowerShell Home   • Add-Content   • Get-Content   • Set-Content  • PowerShell -Filter   • Test-Path

PowerShell Get-ChildItem   • Get-ChildItem -Include   • Get-ChildItem -Exclude   • Compare-Object

PowerShell Registry  • Get-Credential  • PowerShell ItemProperty  • PowerShell ItemPropery GCI

Please email me if you have a better example script. Also please report any factual mistakes, grammatical errors or broken links, I will be happy to correct the fault.

 

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